The condition is notoriously aggressive and usually requires equally aggressive immunosuppression. As it is a disease of stop-start recurrences and quiescent periods there is usually very little in the way of posterior inflammatory signs and the anterior segment is always quiet. This is indeed the main method of distinguishing it from the main differential diagnosis, toxoplasma retinochoroiditis, in which the inflammatory activity is usually very significant.
As with birdshot, middle-aged white people seem to be the main group affected, although other racial groups are affected to a lesser extent. The new creamy white extensions to the snake that form from time to time fade to a white scar, usually with pigmentation, and the aim of treatment is to suppress recurrences in order to preserve the fovea for as long as possible. Some people advocate using immunosuppression only during flare-ups in order to dampen their effect and others advocate using immunosuppression to prevent flare-ups in the first place, although the degree of immunosuppression required to do this is usually of a high order.
In summary, think of another middle-aged white person with a coiled snake around their head that moves in small increments closer and closer to their terrified face. This is a condition of younger, again mainly white people, with an average age of onset of 26 years and a slight male preponderance of 1.
Unlike the other two conditions mentioned above this is a systemic condition in which a prodromal viral illness is commonly experienced and other systemic symptoms such as auditory symptoms, meningism, lymphadenopathy and bowel complaints can also occur. The disease is self-limiting in the vast majority of cases and burns itself out in a matter of weeks with old lesions settling and new lesions appearing, not unlike a forest fire following a lightning strike at Yellowstone National Park.
The lesions settle to leave a pigmented scar most of the time at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium RPE. Much like the policy of the park firefighters at Yellowstone, the fire from spontaneous lightning strikes is usually left to burn itself out unless it shows signs of spreading to involve important park amenities, such as the fovea in this case, or to be a rare type of fire that becomes chronic and risks great destruction to the park as occurred in So the use of immunosuppression is generally discouraged unless the disease does not seem to be running its typical self-limiting course.
In summary, think of a young white male dropping large yellow plates he is attempting to dry who is recovering from a viral illness and does not feel too well. The other white dot syndromes are perhaps most easily understood as part of a spectrum, although some do stand out and will be dealt with separately. These syndromes characteristically occur in young white myopic females predominantly and do not usually have any effective treatment or sometimes any need for treatment.
After all, Bill Oddie had his own TV show. This is the mildest condition on this spectrum and, as the name suggests, consists of a unilaterally enlarged blind spot on perimetry without a swollen disc or indeed any sign whatsoever. This condition can fluctuate over time, getting better or worse, and can rarely affect the other eye too.
There is a marked relative afferent pupillary defect RAPD and photopsia present in the affected eye. It is more commonly bilateral than AIBSE and the photopsia is worse, being described as being quite intrusive. The visual field defect is again an extension of the blind spot but the prognosis is more likely to be worse than better over time.
Although there is nothing to see initially, hence the word occult in the name, as time goes by there is usually some degree of RPE depigmentation and bone spicule formation in the affected area, along with retinal atrophy see Figure 4. Indeed, retinitis pigmentosa is the main differential diagnosis in the later phase of AZOOR, as is cancer associated retinopathy and melanoma associated retinopathy in the early phase. This condition is similar to AZOOR in that patients present with an enlarged blind spot with photopsia but unlike AZOOR as the damage is only visible months or years after the episode has started, in the form of RPE change and retinal atrophy.
These dots are not fizzy in any way, although they do disappear without a trace. It is firstly useful to consider how this condition is similar to the others in the spectrum. It is usually unilateral, is associated with an RAPD and an enlarged blind spot on perimetric testing and patients report photopsia. Unlike the others, a prodromal viral illness is common, similar perhaps to APMPEE which is outside this grouping, and of course the pathognomonic evanescent white dots occur which are not present in the other conditions see Figure 6.
These dots are smallish, around microns in size, white and again, as the name suggests now that we know what it means , they disappear. This is crucial for differentiation from other conditions that are non-evanescent, such as APMPEE, in which the lesions leave a scar.
Geographic tongue - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
Slight posterior vitreous inflammation and periphlebitis can occur. On red free illumination of the retina wedge shaped lesions around the fovea can occasionally be seen representing a defect in the nerve fibre layer. It is possible that the oral contraceptive pill or intravenous adrenergic based chorioretinal vasoconstriction may be potential causes, although this, as with many aspects of these conditions, is the subject of debate. This is a bilateral inflammatory condition that, as with the spectrum described above, is most common in young myopic white women.
New lesions are creamy yellow and are associated with inflammation in the form of vitreous cells and debris, cystoid macular oedema and periphlebitis. Older lesions form white punched out scars with pigmented edges and the peripapillary area is a common site for these scars, which usually measure a third to a full disc in diameter see Figure 7.
If the peripapillary lesions are fresh then a swollen disc is seen, along with impaired colour vision. As the name suggests there is potential for anterior as well as posterior segment inflammation and treating this is paramount to achieving a good outcome.
In some cases it is possible to stop the immunosuppression after a period of control, while in others the chronicity of the condition is such that this is not possible. If the condition is entirely inactive and is never found to be active the main differential diagnosis is presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome.
If the lesions are few in number and are grouped around the fovea then patients are said to suffer from PIC, which is to all intents and purposes a subset of MCP. The reason that there is very little, if any, vitritis is principally due to the numbers of lesions involved rather than it being a different disease entity. With this condition, due to the perifoveolar area being so directly affected principal causes of visual morbidity stem from lesions affecting the fovea directly, which can be treated with immunosuppression if caught in the acute phase, or development of a choroidal neovascular membrane, which can be treated with anti-VEGF agents in the usual way.
This is a subset of MCP in which there are numerous peripheral densely packed multifocal scars. Sarcoidosis is thought to be a cause of this and some authors suggest that sarcoidosis may indeed be an important aetiological factor in the conditions in the MCP spectrum.
As PIC is a small localised variant of MCP, so progressive subretinal fibrosis and uveitis syndrome is its big bad cousin from another town. MCP can progress to a stage where a subretinal gliotic sheet forms, which slowly extends across the posterior pole and if left unchecked can and will eventually involve the fovea see Figure 8. Calcium phosphate technologies, including amorphous calcium phosphate ACP , casein phosphopeptide-ACP, calcium sodium phosphosilicate, and tricalcium phosphate, are also available, although additional research is needed to support their use.
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If a white spot lesion is an esthetic concern, tooth whitening should be considered in an attempt to blend the lesion in with the natural dentition. Tooth whitening involves diffusion of the whitening material into the enamel and dentin to interact with stain molecules. It also creates micromorphologic alterations on the tooth surface that affect its optical properties. Tooth whitening with hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide can be broadly classified into three categories: in-office whitening; professionally supervised take-home treatment; and over-the counter whitening.
Over-the-counter whitening products are available in strips, paint-on gels or brush-on adhesive liquids. Current research on the efficacy of in-office whitening versus at-home whitening shows that both techniques provide satisfactory outcomes without significant adverse effects in terms of tooth and gingival sensitivity.dinglarizapa.ml
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In many instances, whitening will lighten the tooth color so that the white spot lesion naturally blends in Figure 2A and Figure 2B. Upon completion of the whitening process, patients can decide if further treatment, such as minimally invasive restorative procedures, is needed to meet their esthetic expectations. Enamel microabrasion is indicated for intrinsic discoloration or texture alteration due to enamel hypoplasia, amelogenesis imperfecta or fluorosis. Microabrasion is used for superficial defects, but is contraindicated in lesions with dentin involvement and deeper opaque stains associated with severe hypoplasia, which may require a restorative approach.
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When overall tooth color change is desired, microabrasion can be preceded or followed by tooth whitening to improve the overall esthetic outcome Figure 3A and Figure 3B. Proper isolation with a rubber dam is necessary during microabrasion procedures to ensure patient safety. Furthermore, periodic evaluation of the enamel thickness labio-lingually with a mouth mirror is helpful in assessing the amount of enamel removed during the procedure Figure 4A through Figure 4E.
Upon completion of microabrasion, fluoridated prophylaxis paste should be applied to aid remineralization of the treated surface. Resin infiltration with a low-viscosity hydrophilic resin material in the porous lesion has been proposed as a treatment for white spot lesions. An additional benefit is that the refractive index of the lesion is altered to make it comparable to that of the natural tooth, thereby enhancing esthetics. The last step involves the application of the resin infiltrate, which is then light cured.
Because this technique was only recently introduced, long-term results on the efficacy and stability of resin infiltration in the treatment of white spot lesions are not available. A short-term clinical study found that the esthetic outcome with resin infiltration was satisfactory for the treatment of post-orthodontic white spots.
Restorative treatment with direct resin composites is indicated when conservative approaches — such as remineralization, tooth whitening, microabrasion and resin infiltration — are unsuccessful in removing or masking the white spot lesion. This is often seen in deeper lesions associated with enamel hypoplasia; in these cases, the lesion typically has to be removed and the lost tooth structure replaced with a composite restoration. Careful review of medical and dental histories and a detailed clinical examination will aid in the differential diagnosis of superficial white spot lesions.
Related Significance of the Missing White Dot
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